Pakistan is a land of abundant natural resources. A country blessed with enchanting natural beauty. It has got all the natural wonders from hot deserts to freezing glaciers, plains to mountain ranges, coastal areas to forests, beautiful lakes to long rivers.River system of Pakistan in SPakistan Indus River system is one of the largest in Asia. Pakistan’s Economic well-being is majorly dependent on it. It consists of five major rivers which are Indus, Chenab, Sutlej, Jehlum, Ravi and many other small rivers.Now let’s look at the top ten rivers of Pakistan.
The Indus River is the most significant river in Pakistan, and also the longest river. It begins in Tibet and finally after running across the country flows into the Arabian Sea. The river system is fed mainly by glaciers and snow of the Himalayas, and is one of the few rivers that display a tidal bore.River’s flow is also determined by the seasons, being lower in winter, and over flowingits banks in monsoon season, from July to September 1. The formation of the embryonic Indus River, South Asia’s main source of surface water, probably began 50 million years ago when the Indian plate, Gondwanaland, first collided with Eurasia.The Indus River system comprises of three main reservoirs, 16 Barrages, 2 Siphons across major rivers, 12 inter link canals, 2 head-works, 44 canal systems (23 in Punjab, 14 in Sindh, 5 in Khyber Pakhtunkha and 2 in Balochstan) and more than 107000 water courses. The cumulative length of the canals is about 56073 km. Its entire basin covers an area of approximately 384,000 square miles of open land, from which 204,000 sq. km lies in Pakistan. Important engineering on Indus River are theTarbela Dam and GaziBrotha Hydro Power Project.
Length of the Indus River – 2700 Km
Catchments area – 404220 Km
Annual Average flow – 48 MAF
River Sutlej is another major river in Pakistan. It is longest of the rivers that give Punjab (meaning “Fiver River”) originates in west side of Tibet in the Kailas mountain ranges. It Flows from Northwest and West – South West through Himalayan valleys; it crosses Himachal Pardesh (India) and come into the Punjab plains in Hoshiarpur district, Punjab state. Sutlej River is also known as the Red River.
Total length – 1450 km
Length in Pakistan – 526 km
Important Engineering– Dialpir canal, Islam Barrage, SulemankiBarrye
Catchment Area – 65932 km
Annual Average flow – 0.021 MAF
The River Chenab was named Iskmati or Ashkini in Vedic times by Indians. Chenab River is generally considered to be the second healthiest river of country after River Indus.It originates in the Kulu and Kangra districts of the Himachal Pradesh, provinces of India. Two Primary Streams of Chenab River—the Chandr, and the Bangr—rise at a height of 16000 feet. These two join at Tandi in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Feed by uncountable tributaries on the long voyage from its headwaters, the river gains enormouspower above Kashmir. In enters Pakistan through Sialkot near DiawaraVillage.The famous love stories of HeerRanjha and SohniMahiwal circles around this iconic river giving it an important place in the Punjabi culture
Length in Pakistan – 724 km
Important Engineerings– Marala Barrage khanki Barrage
Catchmeet Area – 41656 km
Annual Average flow – 12.38 MAF
The Jhelum is a large eastern river of the Indus, and amongst the few rivers that originates from Kashmir.The River originates from a deep spring of Vernag, in the Indian-Occupied Jammu and Kashmir state. The river then moves towards North-West from the Northern slope of the PirPanjab range to Wular Lake. Then at Mazaffarabad, the River is joined by the Kishanganga River and then they bendsouthward forming the border between Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. At Jhelum town the river then turns South-West ward to Khushab District and then curvessouthwards to join the Chenab River.Over the years the Jhelum River has developed as a major tourism attraction.The Mangla Dam is built on the river which is one of the largest land-fill dams and a renowned tourist attraction.Its reservoir irrigates about 3,000,000 acres of land in Pakistan and has an installed capacity of 300 MW of electricity production. There are nine bridges over the river Jhelum, built long ago, also aid as hot tourism sites.
Total length – 725 km
Length in Pakistan – 379 miles
Catchment Area – 21359 miles
Annual Average flow – 11.85 MAF
The Ravi named as “Iravati or Parushani” by Indians in Vedic times, is the smallest of the five tributaries of the great Indus River that give the Punjab Province (meaning “Five Rivers”) its name. It is an essential part of the Indus River system as it formulates the heads waters of the Indus basin.Ravi rises in the Himalayas in the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh, and flows west-northwest past Chamba, turning southwest at the boundary Jammu and Kashmir. It then flows toward the Pakistani border and along it at least 50 miles before entering Punjab. It then flows past Lahore and turns west near Kamalia, and after a course of about 450 miles it empties into the Chenab River south of AhmadpurSial.Hydrology of Ravi River is dependent on spring snow melt. In winters the flow in the river is substantially reduced but in summers it has flood discharges in excess of 600,000 cubic feet (17,000 cubic meters) per second
Length in Pakistan – 675 km
Important Engneerings – Balloki and Sindh nai head works.
Catchment Area – 25185 km
Amnual Average flow -1.47 MAF.
Swat River is located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province of Pakistan. The historic name of this river given by Hindus is ‘SuvastuRiver’ which is written in Rig Veda. It’s known that Army of the great Alexander crossed the swat river before moving towards the southern areas which are now known as Barikoot and Odegram.The River originates from the mountains of the Hindu Kush range and flows through the District Swat and the Kalam Valley. It then kilts the District of Lower Dir and through the Malakand District it enters the Kabul River in the Peshawar valley at the Charsadda.Swat Riverirrigates a large area in the Swat district and also contributes majorly into the fishing business in the region.Swat River has some of the most beautiful scenes around it and is a popular spot for tourists. AyubBridgeon the Swat River is one of the most popular places to visit.Electricity is being generated through two hydro-electric power projects build on the canals on Swat River.
This river is located in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan. Its name is in Irani language and is quite similar to the Little ZabRiver and the Great Zab river of Iraq and the Pamirs. The city located at the bank of River is also named Zhob City after the name of the river.The River is formed by the melting water coming from the SulaimanMountains which then flows through the Baluchistan province and falls into the GomalRiver near KhajuriKachadd. The River is directed from southwest to northeast. It rises at TsariMehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of around 400 kilometers. Its Broad plains are occupied by alluvial formation.Its Subsidiary river the Kundar River rises from the central point of the TobaKakarrange,fewkilometers northeast of the Sakir. It forms the boundary between Afghanistan territory Pakistan and for a significant length.Zhob River and KundarRivr are the two principle drainage channels for Zhob City, both flow into the River Gomal. The other subsidiary rivers or streams of Zhob River include the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, and Surab.
Soan River is located the Pothohar region in Pakistan. It is an important river in the region and it drains most of its water. It originates from Bun, a small village near the lower hills of Muree and Patriata and Muree.Soan River provides water to the Simly Dam, a major reservoir of Islamabad city.Soan River cuts through a mountain range near the Fort Pharwala which is called Soan which is a natural phenomenon. It is not possible for a river to cut through a high mountain which evidences that River Soan was there before the formation of this mountain range. It continued its path by cutting through the mountains through millions of years.Islamabad highway crosses the river at the famous Cock Pull Bridge.Its joined by Lai stream near Soan Camp and then it flows through a big curve and reach Kalabagh and drops into the River Indus.River Soan is the host of many species of fish,Rahu and Kingfisher being the main fish. The river forms the northern border of District Bannu also. The Soan Culture is one of the oldest sign of human civilizations which is about 100,000 – 150,000 years old and it was found in the River Soan.
NeelumRiver is located in the Kashmir region, and is also called the River Kishanganga in India. The river originates in indian and enters Pakistan’s area in the Guraissector of the line of control running westwards where it meets River Jehlum in the north of Muzzafarabad.The name was given to the river either because of its sky blue color or due to the precious gem neelum(Ruby) which is present in the area.The lovely valley of Neelum located in the Azad Kashmir at the bank of the river has enchanting views. This valley can be entered through two courses; one by the Neelum road from Muzzafarabad and the other by Julkhan road from Kaghan.Neelum has always had a great importance due to its appeal and fertility. Tourists come here from all over the world every year especially in the summers to enjoy its forests, slop hills, waterfalls, greenery and pleasant weather. Many fruits grow in this part and they taste like heaven.Also many hotels of good standard can be found at the bank of River Neelum giving a reamrkable view of the river from every window.
Hunza River is located in Hunza valley, which is one of the most beautiful locations in the northern areas of Pakistan. It is originated through the joining of the Khunjerab and kilik gorges (nalas), which are basically fed by the glaciers from the mountains. It joinsRiver Naltar andRiver Gilgit and lastly falls into the mighty River Indus.It cuts through the Karakoram mountains from north to south. It crosses The great Karakoram highway near Nagar and Hunza valleys.